Volume 46, N. 2, Special Issue: COBRAMSEG 2022 (Invited Editors: P.J.R. Albuquerque, M.M. Futai), April-June, in progress 2023 | PDF(10 downloads)
Residual loads can affect the load transfer and the settlement-induced in-service loadings, although they do not alter the bearing capacity. When residual loads are present and not measured or evaluated, the settlement estimate is greater than predicted if these loads are known. Residual loads can be measured when the pile instrumentation is nullified before pile installation, in the case of displacement piles, or before the first loading in non-displacement piles, such as bored cast-in-place piles, continuous flight auger piles, and micro-piles. In the case of underpinning foundation and piled raft, when the loading transfer is shared by the original and new foundation, or by the piles and the raft, it is essential to know the stiffness of each foundation element to estimate the load partition. If residual loads are present, pile stiffness is greater than when not considered in the design. The paper revisits this theme of practical relevance. A historical review of the most relevant research involving pile residual load measurements, pile loading tests including the interpretation of residual loads locked at a pile toe, and a new procedure for residual loads prediction are provided. A comparison is made of the experimental residual loads observed in some of the instrumented cases and the values estimated with the suggested procedure. The development of residual loads at the pile toe as a function of the toe resistance to total capacity ratio is very similar to the variation of the soil density as a function of soil moisture content in soil compaction.